Thursday, July 16, 2020

The Power of Delaying Gratification - How to Develop Impulse Control

The Power of Delaying Gratification - How to Develop Impulse Control You are at the grocery store for your weekly shopping. From one aisle to another, you pick the items as you check them off your list.You get to the fruits and vegetables section. You check your list then pick some broccoli, spinach, applesyou smell the cookies from the bakery section just next to where you’re standing.For a minute, you forget what you were to pick next as your mind drifts away. You muster enough concentration and continue shopping but your mind just can’t keep off the idea of getting some cookies.Ever had such an experience? If you love cookies, the answer is ‘Yes.’It may not be cookies for you. But there is something you love, even crave despite rarely getting satisfied after having it. This is the thing which seems to stop your mind from working, until when satisfied.Any time you come across your desire, an argument kicks off in your mind. Do you indulge or not? Deep inside you, you know the right answer. But more often than not, you act contrary to it. Why ?Because desires demand to be satisfied immediately.There are two principles at work here:Pleasure principle â€" this is when your instincts drive you to seek pleasure by satisfying your desires instantly. When this principle is at work in your life, you prioritize the satisfaction of your desires. Usually, this is with complete disregard of the long-term effects.Reality principle â€" this is when your mind considers the reality of circumstances as the determining factor as to whether your desires will be satisfied immediately they show up. When this principle is at work in your life, you will most likely reason out the situation before acting to satisfy your desires.This is how the reality principle would work out in the above shopping situation: You would first check your budget for any extra money. If there was none, you postpone the cookie purchase.If there was some, the reasoning continues: ‘Did you forget to include in your list anything you need for the week?’ If yes, the n that’s what you will buy. If no, then you can buy some cookies.Notice that the purchase had to await your reasoning’s approval. This principle does not reject the desire’s demand for satisfaction. It only seeks to satisfy it under reasonable terms.At the end of the day, it is your supplies that matter most. As much as the cookies smell good and obviously taste great, you are able to prioritize what’s truly important.So, which principle rules your life?If the reality principle runs your life, you are on the right path. Keep it up.If the pleasure principle runs your life, then you have some work to do. If you don’t act, the success you want in life will forever be elusive.Furthermore, you’ll be seeing other people succeed and fail to understand how they are doing it. As much as following the pleasure principle is fun, the fun is only short-term.In the late 60s, a Stanford University professor, Walter Mischel, started studying self-control.He used pre-school children (4-6 years) as his subjects.His goal was to find out how self-control plays out and the effects of having versus not having it.He engaged more than 600 children for the experiment.THE TEMPTATIONEach of the children was led into a room in which was nothing but a table and chair. The emptiness of the room was to ensure there were no distractions.Therefore, the children would concentrate on nothing but the situation at hand. In front of them was then laid a small plate with a marshmallow.The instructions were simple: “You are free to eat the marshmallow now. But if you wait till I come back, I will give you another marshmallow and you will have two.”Now, if you have ever been amazed at how children think and reason, you know that this was going to be an interesting test.Below is a video showing the marshmallow experiment. You may find it funny and even laugh at some of the kids’ actions. Some of them instinctively picked the marshmallow and ate it.Some visibly struggled keeping it fr om their mouths. Others even tried ignoring its presence. Enjoy the video then continue reading for the lessons. As an adult, you have experienced your own share of such situations. Unfortunately for you, you will not be forgiven if you act like the kids who could not hold themselves back.Why?No-one expects that of you. Indeed, life itself does not expect that of you.Actually, if you continually allow your instincts to control you, you can bet on achieving very little in life.It has been said that good things come to those who wait. Whereas this statement is true, it only describes an outcome. For those who love understanding the ‘How’ and ‘Why’ of things, this statement falls short.What happens is that there is always an opportunity for good things in the future. Attaining that good thing is however dependent on you.The future time enables you to make appropriate plans and execute them today. When you do this, you set yourself up for achievement. On the other hand, if you j ust sit and wait, doing nothing, you will get nothing.You can’t outwit fate by standing on the sidelines placing little side bets about the outcome of life… if you don’t play you can’t win. â€" Judith McNaughtThis article discusses 5 strategies you can implement to develop impulse control. Impulse control is important as it helps you stick to your plans for the future.It is the future that holds good things.If you think the present has something good, then the future has better. Just put in the right efforts and you will attain it. Having a plan as a guide to your goals helps you keep distractions at bay.If you don’t have any plans, this would be a good time to plan for your life.After some practice, you will realize that what was once a strong urge, has lost its grip on you.It will then be easy to say ‘No’ when you should.THE FOLLOW UP STUDYA follow up study was done on the kids who were involved in the test and the results were surprising.Those who had been able to w ait for the second marshmallow developed into more attentive and rational adolescents. They attained higher grades in school and handled stressful situations better.When you look at that, you can easily imagine what happens when those kids become adults. At the same time, you can imagine what becomes of those who were not able to wait.That experiment was about self-control. Having or lacking self-control has real effects on life in general. When you cannot practice self-control, you open yourself up to negative effects. Three big ones are:Inability to control your anger â€" may lead to violence, arrests and serving jail termsInability to control your desires for good things â€" may lead to theft, excessive impulse buying which may further lead to debts and financial instability.Inability to control peer pressure â€" may lead to alcoholism, drug abuse, crime, early and unwanted pregnancies, abortions etc.The essence of practicing self-control is to prevent you from acting on impulse. What is an impulse?The Oxford Dictionary defines impulse as a sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act. This is what you need to control. You may think that it is easier said than done.Doing it is actually easier than you may think. If you want success, then learning to control your impulses is key.This is what is referred to as Delaying Gratification. You postpone the satisfying of your desires until a more convenient time. As we have seen above, the convenient time is determined by the current circumstances.So, how do you control your impulses?As we answer this question, we will use the above example of a temptation coming up while you’re shopping. This will enable you see how the strategies discussed below can apply in the real world.STRATEGIES FOR IMPULSE CONTROLBelieve it or not, there’s so much that adults can learn from children.And the learning is not how to play certain games, but serious things like how to avoid temptations.Did you notice what some of the c hildren in the experiment did so as to avoid eating the marshmallows?Some closed their eyes so as not to see it, others started playing and singing.Still, others were strong enough to play with it without actually eating it.Can you beat that?It is from these kids that we derive our first two strategies.Distract Yourself with Other Things Which You LikeThe truth is that you can never face temptations from things you don’t like. Ever wondered why?Every temptation which comes your way will appeal to one of your many desires. This is the key to applying this strategy.Always remember that you have many desires and the temptation before you is drawing attention to only one of them. This then means that if you fail to satisfy that desire, it’s not a big deal.Giving in to temptations always brings satisfaction. Doing something you like always brings satisfaction. So, distracting yourself from the temptation and doing something else which you like, will still give you satisfaction.In our grocery store example, after smelling the cookies, you can use this strategy to successfully steer away. Just take yourself through a short monologue like the one below.Why are you here? You are shopping for the supplies needed at home. What do you do with the cereals, fruits and everything else you are buying?You prepare great meals and snacks like sandwiches, desserts, milk shakes etc.Do you enjoy having the kind of meals and snacks you prepare? Yes, you love home-made snacks because you are in charge of the ingredients and cooking processes.More than that, you love cooking. The whole process for you is just fun.The moment you start taking your mind through such a monologue, its focus will shift from the cookies to this conversation. Your nose will not stop working, neither will your brain’s interpretation of smell come to a halt.What will happen is simply a diversion of interests. Your mind had previously allowed your pleasure urges to express themselves in a way that quickly captured your attention. Now, it is taking back the control.Your desire for cookies came out strongly because there is a favorable ingredient that catalyzed the process. Since you love cookies, they are definitely high in the list of things you value.If you never valued them, they would not be a challenge at all. In fact, you would probably wonder why the store had a bakery section in the first place. This is why you pass many other things because not everything is for you.This is therefore all about what you value. Whenever you get what you value, you get satisfaction.The question then becomes, ‘Apart from cookies, what else do you value?’When you get the answer to this question, immediately focus on it. Make sure you pick on something you can do at the place you are. It should also not require you to look for something or someone else to facilitate it.The kids who started singing or playing with their fingers seemed to understand this pretty well.Some played with the marshmall ow itself.Notice that they did not need to leave the room to access their fingers for playing or to start singing.For the successful use of this strategy, you have to use what is readily available. In our example of thinking about your cooking and how you enjoy it, you are using your memory.You will always have your memory wherever you go. What you need to do is teach your mind that it should be retrieving certain information when temptations strike.It may be a challenge at first but after doing it twice or thrice, your mind will be able to take it from there. Your mind is a fast learner. Tip: when you decide to use this strategy, tell your mind that you have gotten a solution. Go through this strategy in your mind and picture yourself overcoming the temptation. Your mind will take the cue from you. Knowing that it has the solution, it will be ready to tackle the problem when it appears. All you will need to do at this point is affirm it’s actions and guide it through.Remember: yo u need to train your mind on how to act. After that, it will automatically act as expected.Reward YourselfEveryone loves being rewarded. When you get rewarded for a job well done, you love the reward even more.This is because you can spot the relationship between your efforts and the reward. Rewards are an appreciation and there is nothing as good as being appreciated.You have trained your mind and it has performed well. Why not reward it?Obviously, rewarding your mind is rewarding yourself and you can only reward yourself with something you like.Depending on your situation, get yourself something which you will enjoy while taking care not to endanger your impulse control progress.Essentially, what you will be doing is avoiding one desire and indulging another. The trick here is that the desire which you will indulge has not demanded satisfaction.You are therefore the one initiating it, meaning you are in control. Also, this reward should not be something you can do immediately. In our grocery store example, you should not resist buying the cookies, only to buy some ice-cream.Rewards come because you have achieved something.For our example, the reward would be for successfully avoiding to buy cookies.When you reward yourself like this, your mind then knows that it is a good thing to avoid temptation.Why?There is always a reward for that. For our case, the reward can be making yourself one of your favorite snacks once you get home.This way, you have avoided the cookie temptation and have taken a healthy alternative. Now, the next time you go shopping and pass by the bakery section, use the same strategy.This time however, once you get home, do not make yourself the snack. Postpone it.You can decide to make it the following day or after an hour. The idea is to lengthen the time taken to reward yourself. Still, the reward will be given, though later.This teaches your mind that the reward is available but may not always come immediately the time is right. If you d ecide to do it in an hour’s time, you will probably get busy and either forget it or not have time for it.Either way, you win. Remember that you avoided one desire (the cookie) and now have avoided another one (the snack). Continue doing this and your impulse control objectives will be realized.In case you feel you cannot be in control of your desires, just tell yourself that you can. You can even use the evidence of those you know have self-control.Tell yourself that if they could do it, then you also can. Every time you say you can’t, you actually strengthen the urges and make them stronger. Avoid doing that at all cost.Consider Temptations as Challenges to Be OvercomeWhen you think of overcoming temptations, you will realize there is a lot of effort required.This is especially true if you are struggling with it. The goal of this strategy is to guide you into a change of attitude towards those temptations.Stop looking at temptations as a problem, consider them a challenge to b e overcome.Did you know that you can overcome any challenge?The biggest challenge you may have is to overcome the belief that you cannot overcome some challenges. If there is a bad belief you can ever pick, then this is it.Believe in your inability to overcome challenges and you will always wonder how others succeed while you don’t.When you look at temptations as challenges to be overcome, two things happen.You are able to identify the desire behind the urge â€" this is important because it enables you deal with the issue from the core.Temptations are merely situations which provide an opportunity for you to indulge your desires and passions.Whenever they show up, you are instinctively drawn to respond positively towards them. This however, is the pleasure principle which you are fighting.From our grocery store example, whenever you go shopping, this tempting situation comes up. What’s the cause? Your love for cookies.Once you have known this, then you can either decide to drop that desire or control it. The latter is the easiest option. If controlled effectively, the desire eventually disappears.You get an opportunity to grow â€" progress takes place when you overcome challenges.You can never grow without going through a challenge. Since you want to grow, then it is only logical that you expect some challenges to come your way.The reason why some people are always taking risks is because they know the outcomeâ€"growth. Looking at their lives you will see the evidence of the growth.These are the same people you admire for their confidence and success. Remember what the follow up on the marshmallow kids showed?Basically, higher self-control guarantees higher success.The reason is simple: when you haveâ€"and practiceâ€"self-control, you are able to make better decisions. Better decisions are at the heart of success.With the temptation at hand, just remember that this is a great opportunity to grow. Shift from failure mode to the conqueror mode and fight thro ugh the challenge.Have nothing else in mind but the thought of growth. Remind yourself that going past this challenge means you will be one level higher than where you currently are. With your mind in it, you can be assured of success.Extra Benefit: After overcoming the challenge, you will notice an increase in your self- confidence.Have a Plan for Your Life and Focus on itThe greatest success you can ever have is success in life. Though many people define this differently, you know you have success when you are fully satisfied with all your efforts.For your efforts to pay off, they need to be targeted at something. If you are not working towards any goal, then you are very likely going to be distracted and end up doing nothing. Definitely, you will achieve nothing.Doing nothing does not necessarily mean you are seated idle. You could be involved in many physical activities and sweating it out.Nevertheless, those activities may not be contributing towards a tangible goal. If this is the case, then your efforts count for nothing.For success in life, you need to have a goal. From the goal, create a plan for achieving it then stick to the plan.Plans can be changed depending on circumstances.The changes implemented should make it easier for you to get to your goals. In everything you do, your focus should be on your goals. Your plan is your guide.When you have a plan and are sticking to it, your value system changes. You no longer value some of the things you used to hold on to. Some of your currently-favorite hobbies will change.If you used to go to the movies every weekend, the frequency will reduce.Soon, the temptations you used to fall for, or at least struggle with, will no longer be an issue for you. This is all as a result of focusing on your goals and plans.For our grocery store example, your focus on your plan may work in at least two ways.Better time management â€" going shopping will not necessarily take you 2 hours. Since you planned beforehand, your l ist will be your trusted guide. You know which aisles to visit and even when you pass by the bakery area, your focus is simply not on that. This way, you may take up to 30 minutes less. This is time which you can invest in something else.Better financial management â€" if you were to have the cookies, you can be sure you won’t have them for free. They cost money. Buying them sets you back some amount while not buying ‘saves’ you the same. Saves is in quotes because if you had not budgeted for the cookies, you are not literally saving anything. Still, think of what could have happened were you not focused on shopping and going home. You would have bought some cookies. Now that you didn’t, this is some sort of saving.Set PrioritiesPriorities are important in life. If you are to achieve anything in life, you have to set your priorities right.Priorities tell you what is important and needs to be done. If you are totally honest with yourself, you will admit that you have overvalu ed some things in your life.You may have emotional connections to them but they are not truly important. These only serve to draw attention and energy from you yet other things are more deserving.Below is a short video showing the importance of prioritizing the important things. For you to properly prioritize, you need to take some time off your schedule. Write down the things you are working on or pursuing then number them.Number 1 should be for the most important thing on that list.The more the items, the more time you will need. If you find yourself struggling to number them, just ask yourself, “Why am I doing this thing?” or “What benefit will I get when I do this thing?” The answers will help you rate their importance.After that, re-write the list with the most important thing on top. Take a look at the items at the bottom of the list and critically think about their importance.Keep in mind that having a long To-Do list makes you lose focus and cuts out motivation. When you look at a long list of undone things, you easily feel powerless to succeed. This is especially true when you are trying to make changes.If you find it hard to shorten your list by slashing some items off, then consider other strategies of achieving them.For example, if it is work-related, you could ask a colleague to help you out. You will then be able to remove that item or achieve it in a shorter time frame.With your priorities in place, it’s just a matter of sticking with them. Set time for the tasks and during that time, focus on nothing but the specific task allocated the time.For our shopping example, your priorities will simply be the items on your shopping list. Anything else is not a priority thus should not be considered.CONCLUSIONAll in all, developing impulse control is possible and beneficial. To prepare yourself for it, just think about the possible benefits and decide that you want them.From there, start implementing these strategies. Do not be hard on yourself if you find yourself struggling. And even more importantly, do not feel guilty about it. Learning is a process and being a process is what makes it fun.Believe that you have the ability and do not talk yourself out of the benefits through negative thinking.Do you have other strategies of developing impulse control? Please share them in the comments area.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legal - 1188 Words

The United States Supreme Court has recognized that multiple rights related to family that fall within the right to privacy and are granted significant constitutional protection. It is a matter of some dispute, however, which rights do or should fall within the contours of the right to privacy and, further, how narrowly those rights should be defined - most specifically, the topic of same sex marriage. While a copious amount of people agree that same sex marriage is no different than heterosexual marriage and should be awarded the same protection, others argue that it is an infringement upon family values, tradition, and religious sensibilities. Over the past few years, several state appellate courts have looked at whether their†¦show more content†¦A matter of some dispute includes the criteria that is used by the Court to decide which rights qualify for this raised protection and how the extent of those rights should be defined. During the 1970s, a gay rights movement, patterned in many ways after the civil rights and women’s rights movements, developed momentum as the sexual revolution spurred new social and sexual mores, which in turn prompted legislatures to repeal many state laws regulating sexuality. For instance, some 20 states, including California and Ohio, struck from the books their anti-sodomy laws. Still, by the mid-1980s, laws that prohibited certain acts between people of the same sex, and in some cases between those of the opposite sex, remained in force in 25 states. (The Constitutional Dimensions of the Same-Sex Marriage Debate) Although the legal battle over same-sex marriage is rooted, in part, in the question of whether state and federal constitutions protect a right to privacy, the word â€Å"privacy† never actually appears in the U.S. Constitution. (Shmoop Editorial Team, The Gay Marriage Debate and the Due Process Clause) However, the Constitution does recognize several rights relating to privacy. For example, the Fourth Amendment recognizes the importance of privacy interests when it stipulates that because citizens

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Language Arts Program - 1379 Words

Part A What is the Null Hypothesis (Ho)? There is no difference in mean WAVFT score between student who did not take the language arts program and the students who did. What is the Alternative Hypothesis? There is a difference in mean WAVFT score between students who did not take the language art program and the students who did. What is (are) the Independent Variable(s)? The independent variable of this study is the language arts program. There are two levels: students who did take the language arts program, and students who did not take the language arts program. What is (are) the Dependent Variable(s)? The dependent variable of this study is the scores from Western Australian Verbal Fluency Test (WAVFT). Describe the possible†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, it is also beneficial to do a repeated-measure design with a pretest; this procedure could help to minimize random and unsystematic differences. Part B: Research Analyses – t-test Results and Discussion A paired samples t test with an a of .05 was used to compare mean amount of eye contact between infants aged six months (M=7.25, SD = 1.909), and nine months (M = 8.75, SD = 2.053). On average, the amount of eye contact among infants aged nine months is higher than the six-months (M = 1.5, SD = 2.138), in this study. The mean difference was not statistically significant, t(7) = -1.984, p = .088, d = 0.76, two tails. (see figure 1) Figure1. Number of one-minute segments with eye-contact at different age. The present study suggests that there is no significant evidence to show that different age leads to different amount of eye contact during infancy. However, this result might be caused by the small sample size, because the effect size in this study is relatively large. This study design has two possible confounds: first is the individual differences in terms of temperament, second is that the difference in the amount of eye contact might relates to different everyday child-adult interaction pattern. To improve the validity of the study, it is essential to increase the size of sample, meanwhile, it is important to notice that primary social caregivers should not only implied as the mother of

“Chronicle of a Death Foretold” by Gabriel Garcia Free Essays

â€Å"It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife† (Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen) This essay will look at Gabriel Garcia’s Chronicle of a Death Foretold and Mariama Ba’s So Long a letter in relation to the topic ‘Social and Economic Status as a bane of women Empowerment’. Gabriel Garcia and Mariama Ba in their works have depicted women’s eagerness for social and economic status to empower themselves. Women were shown to have gone as far as destroying their children’s happiness for their own desires and satisfactions. We will write a custom essay sample on â€Å"Chronicle of a Death Foretold† by Gabriel Garcia or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example a number of them have used their daughters by marrying them off to men in possession of a good fortune, regardless of what their daughters felt about the men. The women in the forefront who were in the lookout for social and economic status to empower themselves were Pura Vicario from Chronicle of a Death Foretold, Binetou’s and Ramatoulaye’s mothers and Aunty Nabou, from So Long a Letter. However there are a number of women which were portrayed differently, namely, Ramatoulaye and Aissatou in So Long a Letter, and Alberta Simonds in Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Women especially from especially lower class used their daughters as a mean of gaining social and economic status by marrying them off to wealthy men. Their views on their daughters’ marriage entailed their own self-centeredness only. Pura Vicario for example in Chronicle of a Death Foretold forced her daughter, Angela Vicario, into marriage with San Bayardo, a very wealthy man; because she believed it would pull her out of poverty towards a more respectable upper class distinction. Angela was not only forced by her mother but also her sisters and when Angela told them that she does not love Bayardo, her mother silenced her by telling her that love can be learned too. â€Å"†¦her parents and her older sisters with their husbands, gathered together in the parlor, imposed on her the obligation to marry a man whom she had barely seen.† (Marquez 34) The twins stayed out of it saying that it looked to them like woman problems. That proves that it were the women in the family who were really concerned about Angela’s marriage with Bayardo so that they could be empowered through gaining socio-economic status. However, their dreams of escaping from lower class and gaining socio-economic status came to an ultimate end when Bayardo returned her daughter after he found out that she was not a virgin. Pura saw her daughter’s marriage with Bayardo as a golden chance to see herself better off socially and economically, which Pura lamented as they had missed it, all because of Angela who had premarital sex. Similarly, Binetou’s mother in So Long a Letter also took advantage of her daughter Binetou. She quickly withdrew her daughter from studies to marry her off to Modou. In Modou she saw his wealth and believed that her daughter’s marriage with Modou could empower her and uplift her socio-economic status. So, she also wanted to escape poverty and have socio-economic status as Daba, Ramatoulaye’s daughter, described her â€Å"†¦her mother is a woman who wants so much to escape from mediocrity†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Ba, 36) She was satisfied by Modou’s wealth, he promised her a villa, monthly allowance, jewels and a future trip to Mecca. But she made it seem like as if she was worried for the welfare of her daughter and her happiness but her frantic thoughts and tense nerves surrounded herself. She reasoned that it was best if her daughter married a man who could guarantee her a good life. However, it was apparent that she did not really care about her daughter as she did not take into consideration how her daughter felt about Modou and she did not care about her daughter’s education either. She saw her welfare in wealth and financial stability, a man twice the age of her daughter or a man with already twelve children did not matter to Binetou’s mother. So, it was evident that Binetou’s mother’s intentions were not for her daughter’s good but rather for her own desire to empower herself by gaining socio-economic status. Ramatoulaye’s mother also seemed to desire social and economic status. She also in a way preferred her daughter Ramatoulaye to choose wealth over love. She did not like her daughter’s choice of Modou amid knowing that they both loved each other; she wanted her to marry Dauda Dieng because of his higher socio-economic status as opposed to Modou, since he was a doctor. Similarly, Aunty Nabou wanted her son Mawdo to marry someone from the same caste to upkeep the family’s status. She totally regretted his marriage to a goldsmith’s daughter Aissatou. Aunty Nabou saw her son, a man of higher caste marrying a blacksmith daughter, as a humiliation to her and a stain to her generation. Therefore, she decided to bring her brother, Farba Diouf’s daughter Young Nabou to marry her with her son. She educated Nabou before forcing Mawdo to marry her telling him that she will die of shame in the society if he did not accept, so Mawdo accepted. She did so because she wanted to preserve her socio-economic status which she felt was under threat when her son chose to marry outside and someone from a lower caste. So, Aunty Nabou to preserve her social class disregarded her son’s happiness which laid in Aissatou because he truly loved her and she loved him. However, Aunty Nabou did not see this, she only saw her as a goldsmith’s daug hter and hence she saw her socio-economic status as of more importance than her son’s happiness. The only people who stood out differently were Ramatoulaye and Aissatou in So Long a Letter and Albarta Simonds in Chronicle of a Death Foretold. They were the only characters who knew the importance of love in marriage and had put love prior to wealth or socio-economic status. They knew that marriage should consist of love, financial stability, and happiness, rather than just financial stability or socio-economic status. Ramatoulaye despite being proposed to by a millionaire Dauda, she went on to marry Modou whom she loved as she said â€Å"†¦ I preferred the man in the eternal khaki suit.† (Ba, 16) So she married considered love as of more importance than wealth. She refused Dauda even after Modou’s death. She too could have opted to marry Dauda and escaped mediocrity and financial burden. Also, she could have enjoyed a higher socio-economic status than before by marrying Dauda, but she did not do so because she did not love him and she knew that this act of her would destroy another woman’s life; the woman who was already married to Dauda. Ramatoulaye, herself was cheated by her husband and therefore knew how it feels, so she did not want to Dauda’s current wife to go through the same as she was. Aissatou was also one of the few who knew the importance of love and happiness in marriage and had put love prior to wealth and socio-economic status. She divorced her husband Mawdo and went away when he took a second wife, Young Nabou, which shows that she did not want to share her husband and could not bear to see her husband with another woman in her house. That showed the importance of, love, financial stability, and happiness as a whole in marriage to Aissatou rather than financial stability or socio-economic status alone. Alberta Simonds, Bayardo’s mother is the only woman who is seen to be completely different. Alberta did not resist her son’s marriage to Angela who was not only someone from outside their generation but also someone from a lower caste. So, unlike Aunty Nabou in Chronicle of a Death Foretold, Alberta did not see her son’s marriage to Angela as a humiliation or threat to their social and economic status. Perhaps she was aware of son Bayardo’s love for Angela and therefore she saw her as the right girl for him. In conclusion, it can be clearly seen social and economic status as a bane of women empowerment. Women sought of empowering themselves through social and economic status by marrying of their daughters to a man with good fortune. Their views on marriage of their daughters entailed their own self-centeredness as they were mainly concerned about their own selfish struggle and fears of financial stability and a secured future. Love was never a factor for the mothers in the marriage of their daughters; they did not care how their daughters’ felt about the man. Mariama Ba and Gabriel Garcia show that those women strongly believed that a person’s worthiness is not determined by personality or love but by wealth. The only importance they saw was financial stability and socio-economic status, unlike a few other characters that were aware of the importance of love, financial stability, and happiness as a whole. How to cite â€Å"Chronicle of a Death Foretold† by Gabriel Garcia, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Management Fundamentals Essay Example

Management Fundamentals Essay From the inception in 1958, it has today burgeoned into one of the top line conglomerates in Bangladesh. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. , the flagship company, is holding the strong leadership position in the pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh since 1985 and is now on its way to becoming a high performance global player. SQUARE  Pharmaceuticals Limited is the largest pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh and it has been continuously in the 1st  position among all national and multinational companies since 1985. It was established in 1958 and converted into a public limited company in 1991.The sales turnover of SPL was more than Taka 7. 5 Billion (US$ 107. 91 million) with about 16. 92% market share (April 2006– March 2007) having a growth rate of about 23. 17% History of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Square Pharmaceuticals is regarded as the one of the top Pharmaceuticals Company of Bangladesh. A major enhancement occurred in the year 1974 when it signed a Technical Collab oration Agreement with Janssen Pharmaceuticals of Belgium a subsidiary of Johnson Johnson International Ltd. The next advancement occurred in the year 1984 when it signed another Technical Collaboration Agreement with F.Holfman-La Roche Co. Ltd. In 1991 it again changed its form and turned in to a Public Limited Company. It enrolled in both the stock exchange listings in 1995. The company signed an agreement with M/S. Bovis Tanvec Ltd. of UK for implementation of Dhaka Plant in 1996. For its excellence in the field of Quality Management System (QMS) it was awarded ISO-9001 certificate in 1998. The Pharmaceuticals business lines include â€Å"Manufacturing and marketing of Pharmaceuticals finished products, Basic Chemicals and Agro Vet Products†.For extraordinary performance the chairman of the company received national award for entrepreneurship in the year 2000. Square Pharmaceuticals, a voyage through time: Commitment to Quality and Dedication to advanced Technology: 1957 :Humble Debut as a partnership firm. 1958: Manufacture and market the first proprietary medicine EASTON’S syrup, widely used in post malarial convalescence. 1962: Manufacture and market first compressed tablet SANTONIN, an antheimintic. 1964: Transformation into Private Limited Company. 974: Technical Collaboration Agreement with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Bwrse, Belgium, a subsidiary of Johnson Johnson International, USA- commitment towards world class GMP. 1976: First national company to manufacture and market antibiotic i. e. AMPICILLIN soon after the expiry of patent. It is also the first national company to manufacture and market METRONIDAZOLE in 1977 and CONRIMOXAZOLE in 1978, soon after expiry of their patent. 1982: Licensing agreement signed with F. Holfman- La Roche Ltd. Switzerland. 1985: Achieved market leadership in Pharmaceuticalsceutical market in home country. 987: First national company to export medicine- an industry record.Export market increased continuously : UK (1987), Singapore (1987), Nepal (1990), Pakistan (1996), Yemen (1996), Myanmar (1997), Srilanka (1997), Combodia (1997) and Russia (1997). 1991: Manufacture and market sterile injectable powder using fully automatic and synchronized with electrical control washing, drying, sterilizing tunnel and filling line, again first national company introducing the world class technology. 1992: Turnover crosses the billion Taka mark- another industry record. 993: First national company to manufacture and market sustained release tablet CLOFENAC 100 mg (Diclofanac sodium BP) a NSAID, using its own resources. 1994: Converted in to a Public Limited Company and floated public share with highest premium. 1995: Listed in Dhaka and Chittagong stock exchange. 1997: First international company to manufacture and market metered dose inhaler, Beclomin 200 puffs, an anti-asthmatic i. e. bronchodilator 1998: Achieved ISO 9001 certificate. 1999: Agreement with Bayer AG, Germany; Eisal Co. Ltd. , Japan. or a help in Technical know-how to foreign Pharmaceuticalsceutical company. 2000: Turnover crosses 2. 5 Billion mark-an industry record. 2005: SQUARE Pharma gets approval to export to UK 2006 SAFA (South Asian Federation of Accountants) – an apex body of SAARC (South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation) awarded Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. the Merit Certificate for the year 2006 in the Manufacturing Sector of SAFA Best Presented Accounts Awards Competition 2006 2009: Awarded as the Enterprise of the year and the winner of Bangladesh Business Award 2009Products of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited The formulation plants are producing wide range of dosage forms like |Tablets : |Non-Coated (plain, chewable, dispersible, vaginal)   | | |Coated (sugar coated, film coated, enteric coated) | | |Sustained/Extended Released (coated, non – coated) | |Capsules : |Granulated Material filled | | |Pellets Filled | |Suppositories : |Suppocire based | |Injections : |Vials contain ing Dry Powder for Injections | | |Small Volume Liquid Parenterals | |Liquids : |Oral Syrups (Sugar based, Non-Sugar based)   | | |Oral Suspensions | | |Topical Liquids | |Spray, Drops, Ointment, Cream and |Small Volume Sterile Eye Ear Drops | |Powder : |Small Volume Nasal Drops Sprays | | |Topical Ointments Creams | | |Topical Antibiotic Powder | |Oral Dry Powders : |Dry Suspensions (Antibiotic Anti Infectives) | | |Dry Syrups (Antibiotics) | |Dry Powder Inhalers : |Partial Filled (Premix) Capsules for Respiratory Tract Application with a Device | |Metered Dose Inhalers : |Pressurized Canisters for Oral use with an Actuator | |Chemical Division started commercial production in 1995.From the year 1997 it started it’s full-fledged production and marketing | |to all top pharmaceuticals within the country including Aventis Pharma, Novartis Bangladesh Ltd. , Glaxo Smith Kline, ACI Ltd. , | |Reckitt Colman, Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. , The Acme Laboratories Ltd, Eskayef B angladesh Ltd. , Opsonin Chemicals, Renata | |Ltd. , Essential Drugs Co. Ltd. etc. with good reputation and loyalty. | Capital Structure The capital structure of the Square Pharmaceuticals is as follows: |Components |Taka |Percentage | |Paid Up Capital |67,000,000 |11. 4% | |Creditors |99,125,404 |17. 37% | |Long Term Bank Loan |136,541,244 |23. 93% | |Share Money Deposit |268,000,000 |46. 96% | [pic] Figure: Capital Structure of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Extraordinary Performance Recent Achievements 1997:Square Pharmaceuticals received the National Export Trophy as recognition to its contribution to national economy through export 006: SAFA (South Asian Federation of Accountants) – an apex body of SAARC (South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation) awarded Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. the Merit Certificate for the year 2006 in the Manufacturing Sector of SAFA Best Presented Accounts Awards Competition 2006 2009: Square Pharmaceuticals Limited awarded as the Enterpri se of the year and the winner of Bangladesh Business Award 2009 Organogram Figure: Organogram of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Contribution to National Economy The pharmaceutical sector attained a growth of 6. 91% during the year 2008 as against 15. 80% during the previous year. The national pharma market growth and that of the company during the past few years are given below: Year |National Growth Rate |Company’s Growth Rate | |2004 |8. 60% |13. 08% | |2005 |17. 50% |14. 30% | |2006 |4. 08% |22. 94% | |2007 |15. 80% |9. 81% | |2008 |6. 1% |18. 83% | Chapter Two Objectives Short term objective To conduct transparent business operation based on market mechanism within the legal social frame work with aims to attain the mission reflected by the company’s vision. Long term objective To produce and provide quality innovative healthcare relief for people, maintain stringently ethical standard in business operation also ensuring benefit to the shareholders, stakeholders and the society at large. Social objectives †¢ To provide top quality health care products at the least cost reaching the lowest rungs of the economic class of people in the country. To fulfill of our responsibility to the government through payment of entire range of due taxes, duties and claims by various public agencies like municipalities etc. †¢ To avoid malpractices, anti-environmental behaviors, unethical and immoral activities and corruptive dealings. †¢ To ensure equality between sexes, races, religions and regions in all spheres of our operation without any discriminatory treatment. †¢ To ensure an environment free from pollution and poisoning. †¢ To give a hand for the achievement of millennium development goals for the human civilization Chapter Three Planning Planning Planning is the beginning of every venture.Sound, intelligent planning is the key to every successful venture. The development of planning was accelerated enormously by the industr ial revolution. There could have been no mass production without planning and effective transportation and communication. Planning covers a wide range of decisions, including the clarification of objectives, establishment of policies, mapping of programs and campaigns, determining specific methods and procedures and fixing day to day schedules. Figure: Planning precedes all other managerial functions Planning at Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Fundamentally there are two types of comprehensive corporate planning.The first is intuitive-anticipatory planning which is generally the work of one person and often does not result in a set of written plans generally has a short time horizon and reaction time; it is based on past experience, the judgment and manager’s reflective thinking. When planning for an individual staff working for a subdivision of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Bangladesh, the individual has to use his / her experience, judgment and at times, intuition to make dec isions. Such plans are non-written and its validity is for a short-term. These plans can be changed frequently if situation demands. However, the formal long-range planning is research-based, involves the work of many people and results in a set of written plans. In Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. any division or subdivision planning is done on the basis of extensive research, discussion and is usually in a written form, long-term basis and are not subject to frequent, abrupt changes. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. believes that experience points out the fundamental dos and donot’s in organizing, planning and other managerial functions. This must be understood if successful planning is to be achieved. All successful plans have common fundamental characteristics despite differing operational details. However, the insight gained through experience must be applied in the applicable areas. If the experience is applied in the wrong place the outcome will be disastrous. The planning proce ss is essentially top-down at Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd.The top management formulates strategies in the corporate level which is converted into divisional, then sub divisional and at last individual objective. The corporate head-office of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. is in â€Å"Square Centre†, 48, Mohakhali C. A, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh, which is the actual policy maker and the policy made by them is later applied to all other departments. Planning of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. is not restricted to a department or a number of departments. Instead the entire process of planning is divided into two broad categories Strategic Planning (carried out at the top of the organization) and Operational Planning (which is carried out at different divisions).The following shows Planning Unit as a whole- Corporate Office, Dhaka Board of Directors General Managers Division Heads Subdivision Heads Figure: Organogram of the Planning Unit. Planning by objectives Objectives or goals are the e nds towards which activity is aimed. They represent not only the end point but also end toward which: organizing, staffing, leading and controlling are aimed. Objectives form a hierarchy, ranging from the broad aim to specific individual objectives. At the zenith of the hierarchy is the purpose, which has two dimensions: First- The purpose of society Second- The purpose of business Figure: Planning by objective Plans 1.Strategic Plan: In Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd strategic planning is limited to the heads of all the divisions / departments and the General Manager. The organogram of the Strategic Planning Unit: Board of Directors Management Committee Divisional Heads Figure: Organogram of the Strategic Planning Unit. Once the policy for a new product is set by the corporate office of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd, the General Manager of each sector along with the heads of each division consult / discuss with the heads of all subdivisions. After such discussion, the heads of each divisi on prepare their division’s proposed plan which is sent for the General Manager’s approval. The General Manager then gives the final decision.Once approved and signed by the division heads, the division heads pass on the objectives and the chain continues downward along the organizational hierarchy until everyone knows what their individual goals are, what tasks to accomplish and how their work contribute to their divisional and organizational goal. 2. Operational Plan: Operational planning consists of the day to day plans, policies and rules of an organization. In operational planning mainly top-down approach is applied. At Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd, operational planning is carried out at different hierarchy levels. This is done because it is believed that since managers have direct responsibility for some phase of operating results, they should have some say in setting meaningful and attainable objectives.Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd uses a participative management ap proach (In the top level management) in setting objectives. The concern believes in setting a goal for each individual for effective and efficient achievement of overall divisional and organizational goal. Operational planning at Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd starts off with the division heads and the General Manager designing a business plan for the next operating period. This plan is trickled down to the division heads who decide on the specific objectives that their divisions will have to achieve in order to meet the overall organizational goals. The division heads then pass on the objectives to the respective subdivision heads that analyze the objectives and check their viability.Individual staff within the subdivisions decides on their task and responsibilities (depending on their competence, experience and ability to handle multiple responsibilities). The feedback from the individual staff of every subdivision goes to the subdivision head and then to the division head. Heads make any alterations or modifications if required and send their feedback to the General Manager. Heads of all divisions are continuously trying to create a balance between available resource (human, capital and technical) with the General Manager’s demands / set goals. Finally after evaluating all aspects, the final plan (along with goals, strategies) is decided upon by the General Manager. Then the plan is assigned to every division and subdivision head.This is how the heads and individual workers decide on how far they can contribute and how they can do so within the given resource base and time. Thus the approved and signed operational plan is passed downwards for implementation. The chain continues downward along the organizational hierarchy until everyone knows exactly what their duties and tasks are, what is required of them to accomplish their own divisional and organizational goal. The feedback is received once the plan is in the process of implementation. Once undergoin g implementation, the sub divisional staff give feedback as how the plan is working. The subdivision heads report to the division heads who again inform the General Manager of the implementation.If the efforts are being directed toward the attainment of the desired goal then there is no change the heads ask their subordinates to continue their good work. However, if the division or subdivision heads feel that there are deviations then corrective actions are taken. In case of extreme difficulty, the General Manager is informed and the operational plan may be modified or changed to ensure proper accomplishment of operational tasks. There are various types of operational plans used by Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd such as: programs, projects, budgets, policies, standard programs and rules. Planning process of Square Pharmaceuticals LimitedFigure: Planning Process of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Planning Premises Premises are defined as the anticipated environment in which plans are exp ected to operate. It includes the forecasting of future and known conditions that will affect plan’s operation. The premises must be carefully considered when planning takes place. The plan, although made at one point in time, will actually operate in future which is full uncertainty. Therefore, effective and efficient planners must agree and utilize consistent planning premise. Forecasting is a prerequisite to planning and also is the result of planning. Both are translated into future expectancies from actual plans developed.Making educated assumptions depending on past experience and knowledge is essential in forecasting the environment / sales. ENVIRONMENTAL FORECASTING Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd believes accurate forecasting of its environment is crucial for proper planning. The planners at the concern take into account the human and material resources available to them, opportunities and threats, compute the optimum method of reaching their objective and proceed toward the attainment of desired goal. Not only the economic but the social, cultural, technological and political-legal environments must be selected for making forecasts which in turn will ensure effective planning. SALES FORECAST KEY PLANS AND PREMISESales forecast is the prediction of expected sales for a certain period. For Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd the sales forecast is in the form of number and face-value of the deposits made or lending products sold, number of cards sold etc. The sales forecast at the concern is done by the top-managers (heads in joint collaboration with the General Manager) which are the Jury of Executive Opinion method. This forecasting method is one where the General Manager gives the final word based on others views / opinions. Square Pharmaceuticals planning is based on the following four premises which are strictly adhered to by the management of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. DYNAMIC NATURE OF A CONCERNSquare Pharmaceuticals Ltd recognizes the fact that the organization is dynamic in nature and as staff changes occur (through termination, resignation, death/retirement), the organization also changes. Therefore, each organization is unique no universal approach can be applied to all. The comprehensive plans must fit the characteristics of the organization for which it has been designed. Due to the dynamic nature of the organization there must be leeway for contingent plans. Square Pharmaceuticals planning unit meets every month to follow-up on the performance of each division and subdivision. In case of any contingency the division and subdivision heads bring the matter to the General Manager’s knowledge and take necessary action accordingly. GROWING NUMBER OF COMPETITORS SNATCHING THE CONCERN’S CUSTOMERSRecent emergence of many foreign and local banks in the banking scenario also poses a positive threat to Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. For a very long time the concern was the only foreign bank operating in Bangladesh. But the formation of new local banks and entrance of foreign competitors which is likely to increase further is one factor the concern cannot ignore. These competing banks will not only compete for customers / market share but also for reputation which has been the major strength of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd for almost a hundred years. RISING AWARENESS OF THE CUSTOMERS’, THEIR GROWING DEMANDS AND DECREASING LOYALTY TOWARDS THE CONCERN The customers of today are far more aware of their rights and demand for highest quality service.At times if the concern fails to meet the customers high standards, the customers may link a single isolated incident and shift their accounts to other competing Pharmaceuticals. The loyalty of the customers is constantly decreasing when confronted with better deals / attractive packages offered by other banks. This factor is also an important one to consider for the concern. Forecasting and premising are, therefore, two essential activities that must be undertaken properly to ensure planning is effectiveness and efficiency. Chapter Four Organizing Organizing in Square Pharmaceuticals Limited Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd is in essence a people centered organization whose all pervasive aim is to maximize profits through investments in human resource.It is this ultimate objective which defines and informs the organization structure of the concern at every level starting from the very top at the board of directors down to the factory supervisors i. e. the building blocks of the concern. Each personnel at every level of this structure have a role to play in the eventual achievement of Square Pharmaceuticals goals. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd is organized: a voluntary configuration of roles has been established that will enhance performance through furnishing an ideal environment. At Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd, the organizational structure is important not for its own sake but for its contribution to goals. This is in keeping with the b est organizational practices. It is evident that the concern is a formal organization as the term has been defined by Barnard.His broad definition referred to the activities of two or more people consciously coordinated toward a given objective, the essence being conscious common purpose. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd meets these criteria very well. It is a complex organization but the activities of its people are coordinated towards that final goal profit maximization for Square Pharmaceuticalsceutical’s and self-sufficiency and social security for the employees. It is at the heart of the concern’s every action, at the same time, the structure permits its primary human resource the managers and the workers to use their creative talents and recognizes individual capacities and weaknesses. Fears of restrictive dangers of a formal organization are thus dispelled.Square Pharmaceutical’s structure fulfils the principal of efficiency (an organizational structure is e fficient if it facilitates accomplishment of objectives by people, i. e. , is effective with the minimum unsought consequences or costs) in addition to the principle of unity of objective (an organizational structure is effective if it facilitates the contribution of individuals in the attainment of enterprise objectives). Types of Departmentation 1. Functional Departmentation: The important departments at Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd are namely – Pharmaceutical, Chemical, and Agro-Vet etc. These are all part of the Square Pharmaceuticals support unit and are divided on the basis of functions performed. So, the functional departments are: i. Pharmaceuticals Division- Manufacturer of finished dosage forms. ii.Chemical Division- Manufacturer of bulk drugs. iii. Agro-Vet Division- Manufacturer of finished Agro-Vet products 2. Service Departmentation: Service departments are as follows i. Finance and Audit Division ii. Information Technology Division iii. Marketing Division- PMD ; MSD iv. Human Resource Division 3. Territory Departmentation: Territory Departmentation are as follows: Figure: Territory Departmentation Recruitment Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd’s staffing (filling organizational positions with qualified people) is done in two ways. These are recruitment as a Management Trainee or as Probationary Officer. In case of a Management Trainee, there is a written exam.After passing the written exam the probation period is nine months. After completion of the probationary period, the trainee joins as a fifth grade officer. The career path of each trainee is headed toward different managerial jobs. A Probationary Officer (Officer Trainee) is the second way of getting in the concern. An Officer Trainee is one who joins for a probationary period of one to one and a half year and if performance is satisfactory then he / she is retained as a fourth grade officer. The career path of an Officer Trainee is not as smooth as that of the Management Trainee and the career progression is a lengthy process. Sources of Recruitment INTERNALThe internal sources are employees who already exist at Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd Limited They are recruited through promotion, training, transfer, etc. In practice, whenever there is a vacancy, management looks for a candidate within the organization. This priority to internal recruitment process is given due to the lengthy and critical process of internalizing the Square Pharmaceutical Limited’s philosophy. EXTERNAL External sources of the employees for Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd Limited submit application letters for their recruitment. Most of these employees would come from the several educational institutions in Bangladesh including the IBA. But the organization prefers Pharmacists, chemists, doctors and paramedics with MBA. Recruitment and Selection ProcessRecruitment and selection -Recruitment policy of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd: 1. Recruitment is made against sanctioned set-up posts and budg et provision. 2. Recruitment is processed only when vacancies are needed to be filled up from amongst the existing human inventory. 3. Inter-department candidates through promotion fill up Eighty percent. 4. Department candidates are allowed to sit for tests and interview with outsiders. Figure: Recruitment ; Selection Procedure in Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Compensation Policy and benefit packages Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd offers various compensation packages beside the basic salary. The packages given here are:Performance Appraisal Techniques Need for performance appraisal at Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd †¢ Making personnel decisions including recruitment and selection process †¢ Evaluation of actual performance †¢ Determining the weaknesses and strong points of each employee †¢ Assessment of training and development need †¢ Used for reward granting selection †¢ Guide to job change including promotion, transfer, etc. †¢ Awareness of each employee s individual differences †¢ Allows top management to become familiar with each employee †¢ To test effectiveness of a training program †¢ To stimulate confidence in fairness of management †¢ To motivate employees to improve To encourage talent and sincerity in employees. Use of Performance Appraisal PROMOTION Workers are promoted based on their ACR and also the judgment of their immediate superior. Employees at the officer level (i. e. managers and above) and at the non-officer level (i. e. below manager) require a minimum of point in the ACR. Another criterion for promotion is the job age of the employee which, at the current position, must be more than three years. If there is more than one candidate for a single post with all the necessary points and job age, then other criteria like past records, age, efficiency, reliability, etc. are considered. INCREMENTSquare Pharmaceuticals Ltd employees have a fixed percentage of increment every year. This percentage var ies at different levels of promotion. The percentage rate is quite high at the top levels and low at the bottom levels. So increment percentages are determined with the help of ACR’s. ADVICE FOR IMPROVEMENT After the performance of the employee has been evaluated, the management might decide that one particular employee with satisfactory ACR may have the potential to improve more. So management sends the ACR as well as a recommendation letter to the immediate superior of the subordinate and tells him to keep close supervision on that subordinate.Types of Training Different types of training used in Square Pharmaceuticals are given below: †¢ Employee training. †¢ Employee development. EMPLOYEE TRAINING Training is more present-day oriented; its focus is on individuals’ current jobs, enhancing those specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their jobs. Although you have a Business administration degree, you’ll need to learn the company’ s product line, your territory, and other pertinent selling tactics. This, by definition, is job-specific training, or training that is designed to make you more effective in your present job. TRAINING PROGRAM On-the-job training Off-the-job trainingA) ON-THE-JOB TRAINING On-the-job training places the employees in actual work situations and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAMS People seeking to enter skilled trades—to become, for example, plumbers, electricians, or ironworkers—are often required to undergo apprenticeship training before they are accepted to expert status. ENTRY-LEVEL TRAINING This is arranged for those who are in a probation period. This is a training program where a mentor relationship is prescribed and the program is fully job oriented. If the employee can fulfill the requirement then he is finally confirmed. Some of these are:Effective management System (EMS) Development of Effective Detai ling Aids (DEDA) Introduction to Product Management (IPM) B) OFF-THE JOB TRAINING Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques—classroom lectures, films, demonstrations, case studies, and other simulation exercises, and programmed instruction. SEMINARS OR CONFERENCES In Square Pharmaceuticals the seminar or conference approach is well adapted to conveying specific information—rules, procedures, or methods. The use of audio-visual or demonstrations can often make formal seminar presentations more interesting while increasing retention and possibly clarifying more difficult points. EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENTEmployee development, by design, is more future oriented and more concerned with education than employee training. By education we mean that employee development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes- to enhance one’s ability to understand and interpret knowledge- rather than imparting a body of facts or teaching a specific set of motor skills . Development, therefore, focuses more on the employee’s personal growth. EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Some development of an individual’s abilities can take place on the job. We will review four popular on-the-job techniques: coaching, understudy assignments, job rotation, and committee assignments. †¢ On the job method †¢ Off the job MethodA) ON-THE JOB METHODS UNDERSTUDY ASSIGNMENTS The busy schedules in Square Pharmaceuticals are characterized by a particular phenomenon; a rapid rise in the use of understudy assignments to replace vacationing personnel. By understudy assignments, we mean that employees with demonstrated potentials are given the opportunity to relieve an experienced employee of his or her job and act as his or her substitute during the period. This label also describes permanent â€Å"assignment to† positions as well as temporary opportunities to assist senior employees in completing their jobs. JOB ROTATION Another method used in S quare Pharmaceuticals is job rotation.Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization in an effort to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. Job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation is nothing more than promoting a worker into a new position. Horizontal job transfers can instituted (1) on planned basis—that is, by means of a development program whereby the worker spends two or three months in an activity and is then moved on; or (2) on a situational basis—that is, by moving the person to another activity when the first is no longer challenging to him or her, or to meet the needs of work scheduling. ASSIGNMENT TO COMMITTEEFinally, assignment to a committee provides an opportunity for the employee in Square Pharmaceuticals to share in decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems. When committees are of an â€Å"ad hoc† or temporary nature, they o ften take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem, ascertain alternative solutions, and make a recommendation for implementing a solution. These temporary assignments are both interesting r

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Conjugation Table for the Italian Verb Pagare

Conjugation Table for the Italian Verb Pagare pagare: to pay (for); buy; repayRegular  first-conjugation Italian verbTransitive verb (takes a  direct object) INDICATIVE/INDICATIVO Presente io pago tu paghi lui, lei, Lei paga noi paghiamo voi pagate loro, Loro pagano Imperfetto io pagavo tu pagavi lui, lei, Lei pagava noi pagavamo voi pagavate loro, Loro pagavano Passato Remoto io pagai tu pagasti lui, lei, Lei pag noi pagammo voi pagaste loro, Loro pagarono Futuro Semplice io pagher tu pagherai lui, lei, Lei pagher noi pagheremo voi pagherete loro, Loro pagheranno Passato Prossimo io ho pagato tu hai pagato lui, lei, Lei ha pagato noi abbiamo pagato voi avete pagato loro, Loro hanno pagato Trapassato Prossimo io avevo pagato tu avevi pagato lui, lei, Lei aveva pagato noi avevamo pagato voi avevate pagato loro, Loro avevano pagato Trapassato Remoto io ebbi pagato tu avesti pagato lui, lei, Lei ebbe pagato noi avemmo pagato voi aveste pagato loro, Loro ebbero pagato Future Anteriore io avr pagato tu avrai pagato lui, lei, Lei avr pagato noi avremo pagato voi avrete pagato loro, Loro avranno pagato SUBJUNCTIVE/CONGIUNTIVO Presente io paghi tu paghi lui, lei, Lei paghi noi paghiamo voi paghiate loro, Loro paghino Imperfetto io pagassi tu pagassi lui, lei, Lei pagasse noi pagassimo voi pagaste loro, Loro pagassero Passato io abbia pagato tu abbia pagato lui, lei, Lei abbia pagato noi abbiamo pagato voi abbiate pagato loro, Loro abbiano pagato Trapassato io avessi pagato tu avessi pagato lui, lei, Lei avesse pagato noi avessimo pagato voi aveste pagato loro, Loro avessero pagato CONDITIONAL/CONDIZIONALE Presente io pagherei tu pagheresti lui, lei, Lei pagherebbe noi pagheremmo voi paghereste loro, Loro pagherebbero Passato io avrei pagato tu avresti pagato lui, lei, Lei avrebbe pagato noi avremmo pagato voi avreste pagato loro, Loro avrebbero pagato IMPERATIVE/IMPERATIVO Presente - paga paghi paghiamo pagate paghino INFINITIVE/INFINITO Presente:  pagare Passato: avere pagato PARTICIPLE/PARTICIPIO Presente: pagante Passato: pagato GERUND/GERUNDIO Presente: pagando Passato: avendo pagato

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Iraq Government, Facts, and History

Iraq Government, Facts, and History The modern nation of Iraq is built upon foundations that go back to some of humanitys earliest complex cultures. It was in Iraq, also known as Mesopotamia, that Babylonian king Hammurabi regularized the law in the Code of Hammurabi, c. 1772 BCE. Under Hammurabis system, society would inflict upon a criminal the same harm that the criminal had inflicted upon his victim. This is codified in the famous dictum, An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. More recent Iraqi history, however, tends to support the Mahatma Gandhis take on this rule. He is supposed to have said that An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind. Capital and Major Cities Capital: Baghdad, population 9,500,000 (2008 estimate) Major cities: Mosul, 3,000,000 Basra, 2,300,000 Arbil, 1,294,000 Kirkuk, 1,200,000 Government of Iraq The Republic of Iraq is a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the president, currently Jalal Talabani, while the head of government is Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki. The unicameral parliament is called the Council of Representatives; its 325 members serve four-year terms. Eight of those seats are specifically reserved for ethnic or religious minorities. Iraqs judiciary system consists of the Higher Judicial Council, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Court of Cassation, and lower courts. (Cassation literally means to quash - it is another term for appeals, evidently taken from the French legal system.) Population Iraq has a total population of about 30.4 million. The population growth rate is an estimated 2.4%. About 66% of Iraqis live in urban areas. Some 75-80% of Iraqis are Arabs. Another 15-20% are Kurds, by far the largest ethnic minority; they live primarily in northern Iraq. The remaining roughly 5% of the population is made up of Turkomen, Assyrians, Armenians, Chaldeans and other ethnic groups. Languages Both Arabic and Kurdish are official languages of Iraq. Kurdish is an Indo-European language related to Iranian languages. Minority languages in Iraq include Turkoman, which is a Turkic language; Assyrian, a Neo-Aramaic language of the Semitic language family; and Armenian, an Indo-European language with possible Greek roots. Thus, although the total number of languages spoken in Iraq is not high, the linguistic variety is great. Religion Iraq is an overwhelmingly Muslim country, with an estimated 97% of the population following Islam. Perhaps, unfortunately, it is also among the most evenly divided countries on Earth in terms of Sunni and Shia populations; 60 to 65% of Iraqis are Shia, while 32 to 37% are Sunni. Under Saddam Hussein, the Sunni minority controlled the government, often persecuting Shias. Since the new constitution was implemented in 2005, Iraq is supposed to be a democratic country, but the Shia/Sunni split is a source of much tension as the nation sorts out a new form of government. Iraq also has a small Christian community, around 3% of the population. During the nearly decade-long war following the US-led invasion in 2003, many Christians fled Iraq for Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, or western countries. Geography Iraq is a desert country, but it is watered by two major rivers - the Tigris and the Euphrates. Only 12% of Iraqs land is arable. It controls a 58 km (36 miles) coast on the Persian Gulf, where the two rivers empty into the Indian Ocean. Iraq is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey and Syria to the north, Jordan and Saudi Arabia to the west, and Kuwait to the southeast. Its highest point is Cheekah Dar, a mountain in the north of the country, at 3,611 m (11,847 feet). Its lowest point is sea level. Climate As a subtropical desert, Iraq experiences extreme seasonal variation in temperature. In parts of the country, July and August temperatures average over 48 °C (118 °F). During the rainy winter months of December through March, however, temperatures drop below freezing not infrequently. Some years, heavy mountain snow in the north produces dangerous flooding on the rivers. The lowest temperature recorded in Iraq was -14 °C (7 °F). The highest temperature was 54 °C (129 °F). Another key feature of Iraqs climate is the sharqi, a southerly wind that blows from April through early June, and again in October and November. It gusts up to 80 kilometers per hour (50 mph), causing sandstorms that can be seen from space. Economy The economy of Iraq is all about oil; black gold provides more than 90% of government revenue  and accounts for 80% of the countrys foreign exchange income. As of 2011, Iraq was producing 1.9 million barrels per day of oil, while consuming 700,000 barrels per day domestically. (Even as it exports almost 2 million barrels per day, Iraq also imports 230,000 barrels per day.) Since the start of the US-led War in Iraq in 2003, foreign aid has become a major component of Iraqs economy, as well. The US has pumped some $58 billion dollars worth of aid into the country between 2003 and 2011; other nations have pledged an additional $33 billion in reconstruction aid. Iraqs workforce is employed primarily in the service sector, although about 15 to 22% work in agriculture. The unemployment rate is around 15%, and an estimated 25% of Iraqis live below the poverty line. The Iraqi currency is the dinar. As of February 2012, $1 US is equal to 1,163 dinars. History of Iraq Part of the Fertile Crescent, Iraq was one of the early sites of complex human civilization and agricultural practice. Once called Mesopotamia, Iraq was the seat of the Sumerian and Babylonian cultures c. 4,000 - 500 BCE. During this early period, Mesopotamians invented or refined technologies such as writing and irrigation; the famous King Hammurabi (r. 1792- 1750 BCE) recorded the law in the Code of Hammurabi, and over a thousand of years later, Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605 - 562 BCE) built the incredible Hanging Gardens of Babylon. After about 500 BCE, Iraq was ruled by a succession of Persian dynasties, such as the Achaemenids, the Parthians, the Sassanids and the Seleucids. Although local governments existed in Iraq, they were under Iranian control until the 600s CE. In 633, the year after the Prophet Muhammad died, a Muslim army under Khalid ibn Walid invaded Iraq. By 651, the soldiers of Islam had brought down the Sassanid Empire in Persia  and began to Islamicize the region that is now Iraq and Iran. Between 661 and 750, Iraq was a dominion of the Umayyad Caliphate, which ruled from Damascus (now in Syria). The Abbasid Caliphate, which ruled the Middle East and North Africa from 750 to 1258, decided to build a new capital closer to the political power hub of Persia. It built the city of Baghdad, which became a center of Islamic art and learning. In 1258, catastrophe struck the Abbasids and Iraq in the form the Mongols under Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. The Mongols demanded that Baghdad surrender, but the Caliph Al-Mustasim refused. Hulagus troops laid siege to Baghdad, taking the city with at least 200,000 Iraqi dead. The Mongols also burned the Grand Library of Baghdad and its wonderful collection of documents - one of the great crimes of history. The caliph himself was executed by being rolled in a carpet and trampled by horses; this was an honorable death in Mongol culture  because none of the caliphs noble blood touched the ground. Hulagus army would meet defeat by the Egyptian Mamluk slave-army in the Battle of Ayn Jalut. In the Mongols wake, however, the Black Death carried away about a third of Iraqs population. In 1401, Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) captured Baghdad  and ordered another massacre of its people. Timurs fierce army only controlled Iraq for a few years  and was supplanted by the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman Empire would rule Iraq from the fifteenth century through 1917  when Britain wrested the Middle East from Turkish control and the Ottoman Empire collapsed. Iraq Under Britain Under the British/French plan to divide the Middle East, the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, Iraq became part of the British Mandate. On November 11, 1920, the region became a British mandate under the League of Nations, called the State of Iraq. Britain brought in a (Sunni) Hashemite king from the region of Mecca and Medina, now in Saudi Arabia, to rule over the primarily Shia Iraqis and Kurds of Iraq, sparking widespread discontent and rebellion. In 1932, Iraq gained nominal independence from Britain, although the British-appointed King Faisal still ruled the country and the British military had special rights in Iraq. The Hashemites ruled until 1958  when King Faisal II was assassinated in a coup led by Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim. This signaled the beginning of a rule by a series of strongmen over Iraq, which lasted through 2003. Qasims rule survived for just five years, before being overthrown in turn by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif in February of 1963. Three years later, Arifs brother took power after the colonel died; however, he would rule Iraq for just two years before being deposed by a Baath Party-led coup in 1968. The Baathist government was led by Ahmed Hasan Al-Bakir at first, but he was slowly elbowed aside over the next decade by Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein formally seized power as president of Iraq in 1979. The following year, feeling threatened by rhetoric from the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the new leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Saddam Hussein launched an invasion of Iran that led to the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War. Hussein himself was a secularist, but the Baath Party was dominated by Sunnis. Khomeini hoped that Iraqs Shiite majority would rise up against Hussein in an Iranian Revolution-style movement, but that did not happen. With support from the Gulf Arab states and the United States, Saddam Hussein was able to fight the Iranians to a stalemate. He also took the opportunity to use chemical weapons against tens of thousands of Kurdish and Marsh Arab civilians within his own country, as well as against the Iranian troops, in blatant violation of international treaty norms and standards. Its economy ravaged by the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq decided to invade the small but wealthy neighboring nation of Kuwait in 1990. Saddam Hussein announced that he had annexed Kuwait; when he refused to withdraw, the United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to take military action in 1991 in order to oust the Iraqis. An international coalition led by the United States (which had been allied with Iraq just three years earlier) routed the Iraqi Army in a matter of months, but Saddam Husseins troops set fire to Kuwaiti oil wells on their way out, causing an ecological disaster along the Persian Gulf coast. This fighting would come to be known as the First Gulf War. Following the First Gulf War, the United States patrolled a no-fly zone over the Kurdish north of Iraq to protect civilians there from Saddam Husseins government; Iraqi Kurdistan began to function as a separate country, even while nominally still part of Iraq. Throughout the 1990s, the international community was concerned that Saddam Husseins government was trying to develop nuclear weapons. In 1993, the US also learned that Hussein had made a plan to assassinate President George H. W. Bush during the First Gulf War. The Iraqis allowed UN weapons inspectors into the country, but expelled them in 1998, claiming that they were CIA spies. In October of that year, US President Bill Clinton called for regime change in Iraq. After George W. Bush became president of the United States in 2000, his administration began to prepare for a war against Iraq. Bush the younger resented Saddam Husseins plans to kill Bush the elder and made the case that Iraq was developing nuclear weapons despite the rather flimsy evidence. The September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington DC gave Bush the political cover he needed to launch a Second Gulf War, even though Saddam Husseins government had nothing to do with al-Qaeda or the 9/11 attacks. Iraq War The Iraq War began on March 20, 2003, when a US-led coalition invaded Iraq from Kuwait. The coalition drove the Baathist regime out of power, installing an Iraqi Interim Government in June of 2004, and organizing free elections for October of 2005. Saddam Hussein went into hiding  but was captured by US troops on December 13, 2003. In the chaos, sectarian violence broke out across the country between the Shia majority and the Sunni minority; al-Qaeda seized the opportunity to establish a presence in Iraq. Iraqs interim government tried Saddam Hussein for the killing of Iraqi Shiites in 1982  and sentenced him to death. Saddam Hussein was hanged on December 30, 2006. After a surge of troops to quell violence in 2007-2008, the US withdrew from Baghdad in June of 2009  and left Iraq completely in December of 2011.